USML | Licentiate of Sacred Theology (S.T.L.)

Pontifical Faculty of Theology

Licentiate of Sacred Theology (S.T.L.)

The Licentiate of Sacred Theology is a research degree.  In the civil system, the S.T.L. would be similar to the course work and exams of a Ph.D. program.  It is structured around a cycle of five courses that provide in-depth study of the Christian theological tradition from the New Testament to the present. Special attention is given to Doctrine of God, Christology, Theological Anthropology, Sacramental Theology, and Spiritual Theology. This program builds on the foundational understanding of these areas from the S.T.B.-level studies, seeks to deepen the student’s grasp of how the Christian community’s understanding of these issues has developed, and prepares the student for doctoral studies in theology. A graduate of the S.T.L. program is equipped to teach theology in a college, seminary, or university, to function as a chaplain to various professional groups, and to act as a theological resource for diocesan agencies.


S.T.L. Admission Requirements

  • Completion of the Application. This includes a Required Immunization Information Form which is mandated by the State of Illinois, Acts 85-1315. (Current M.Div. students should already have this form on file).  All this material can obtained from the Office of Registrar or the website. 

  • An S.T.B. or a M. Div. with a cumulative GPA of at least 3.2 in the S.T.B. Core Curriculum Courses.  (See the  S.T.B. Core Curriculum above).

  • Official transcripts of all undergraduate and post-graduate work.

  • Three letters of recommendation:
      1. one from the ecclesiastical superior (for clergy or religious) or from the proper pastor (for laity) confirming your good standing in your church

      2. two letters from a professor or academic instructor in theology or a related field. 
  • A personal essay between 1000—1500 words explaining the applicant’s intellectual interests and reason for pursuing the degree. 

  • An example of scholarly work such as one complete research paper of at least 15 pages (not including bibliography) written in the last five years.  For those applicants completing the S.T.B. at Mundelein Seminary, this requirement is fulfilled by the three S.T.B. Research papers already submitted and in the student’s file.

  • Language competency must be demonstrated before final acceptance into the program. Competency is demonstrated by passing the USML language examinations (with a score of 86% / B or better) in Latin and one other research language (Biblical Hebrew, classical or koine Greek, French, German, Italian, or Spanish). These exams are administered at the University twice a year.  See the calendar on the back cover of the Bulletin for the scheduled dates.  Aspirants to the S.T.L. program are encouraged to sit for the exams before submitting an application.  Samples of the language exams may be requested from the Registrar.  

  • Completion of the application packet from the Registrar. 

    • Fall Semester, the preceding March 15
    • Spring Semester, the preceeding October 15
  • Notification of acceptance to the program will be given by  March 30 and October 30, respectively.

S.T.L. Length of the Program & Residency Requirement

  • The S.T.L. generally requires two years (four semesters) of study. Candidates are expected to spend at least one year in residence. According to article 35 of the statutes, “No ordinary student in this faculty may be at the same time an ordinary student in some other faculty.”

  • Residency also means a quality of presence, which is spelled out in part in article 37 of the statutes: “Students enrolled in the faculty are expected to observe all the regulations of the faculty... (See Graduate Student Handbook). They should moreover, comport themselves in a professional, ethical, and Christian manner consonant with the goals and purposes of the Pontifically-recognized faculty of theology of which they are a part.” While a student who is a cleric may offer sacramental assistance to local parishes on an occasional basis, his principal task must be participation in and completion of the degree program in which he is enrolled.

  • Those students who are unable to stay in residence for the second year may complete this requirement by attending a series of four six-week summer sessions that run roughly from second week of June to mid-July. Each course meets four times a week for ninety minutes. The normal summer course load is six hours. A quorum of at least four students is necessary to schedule a summer course.

  • The 2015-2019 Summer Schedule is as follows:  

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

HCT IV

HCT III

HCT IV

HCT III

HCT IV

Elective

HCT V

Elective

HCT V

Elective

Elective

Elective

Elective

Elective

Elective

 

S.T.L. Program Requirements

  • Completion of the S.T..L. Curriculum with maintenance of a cumulative GPA of at least 3.2:
History of Christian Thought I: 33-381 (3 cr.)
History of Christian Thought II: 381-800 (3 cr.)
History of Christian Thought III: 800-1500 (3 cr.)
History of Christian Thought IV: 1500-1900 (3 cr.)
History of Christian Thought V: 1900-present (3 cr.)
S.T.L. Elective (3cr.)
S.T.L. Elective (3cr.)
S.T.L. Elective (3cr.)
S.T.L. Elective (3cr.)
Thesis Proposal (2nd semester) (3 cr.)
Thesis Writing (3rd and 4th semesters) (2 cr.)
Ongoing Thesis Writing  (1 cr.)

  •  Comprehensive Exam
    1. Students are examined in the areas of concentration of the S.T.L. program: the Doctrine of God, Christology, and one of the following areas: Theological Anthropology, Sacramental/ Liturgical Theology, and Spiritual Theology.

    2. Since Sacred Scripture is the soul of theology, all students are responsible for the biblical foundations for each area of concentration.  Students will demonstrate knowledge of the biblical genres relevant to these foundations as well as the ability to employ the various Church sanctioned exegetical methodologies.  

    3. For this exam, each student will select six theologians, one from each of the following periods:

      Patristic (33 - 800)
      Monastic and Scholastic (800 - 1500)
      Reformation (1500 -1700)
      Early Modern (1700-1900)
      Twentieth Century to Vatican II (1900 - 1965)
      Contemporary Period (1965 – present)

      At least three of the theologians must be from the Catholic tradition.  A list of approved theologians can be found below, under the Reading List for S.T.L. Exam.

    4. Of the six theologians selected, the candidate is responsible for  two theologians in the area of Doctrine of God, and two in the area of Christology, and  two theologians from one of the following areas: Theological Anthropology, Sacrament / Liturgical Theology, or  Spiritual Theology.  Students are responsible for theological methodology across all three areas.

    5. Students should demonstrate competency not only in the selected texts listed in the Reading List, but also in the theological method, intention, and overall context and structure of the author’s thought.  Students may consult the secondary sources listed below.

    6. The student has a choice of either a written or an oral examination. The oral examination will last one hour with three examiners. The written examination will last three hours and will be based on three questions chosen from a list of five. Questions will be based on the criteria given above.  If a student is unable to take the oral exam on the days scheduled, he or she must take a written exam. 

    7. For those completing the STL program in the summer, the comprehensive exam will be given during the last week of classes.

    8. A student passes the S.T.L. comprehensive by earning at least a B (86%) based on the average of the grades given by each examiner. A student passes “with distinction” when each examiner gives a grade of 95-100%. A student fails the exam if any examiner gives a grade lower than 74%. Those who fail the examination may retake the exam once.

 

S.T.L. Licentiate Thesis

  • The licentiate thesis is written in the area of specialization and may be compared to a substantial scholarly essay, its length is sixty to eighty typewritten pages. The thesis demonstrates the student’s ability to do theological research, to present this research in a coherent way, and concludes with a personal assessment of the findings.
     
  • A Thesis Proposal to be approved by the  director and by one other reader who is assigned by the President of the Pontifical Faculty.
     
  • Schedule for S.T.L. Thesis Research and Writing
     
  • During the second semester of the S.T.L. program, the student will enroll in DT 810 Thesis Proposal, during which he or she will choose a director who will agree to meet with the student on a regular basis. The student will work with the thesis director to develop a proposal. The director will approve and forward the proposal to the President of the Pontifical Faculty at least one month before the end of the semester.  The President will then ask another professor to review the proposal.  Once this professor accepts the proposal, the student continues with the writing of the thesis. 

  • The content of the Theisis Proposal is as follows:
     
    • Working title
    • Working thesis statement
    • The theological context of the thesis (status quaestionis)
    • A description of a the student’s proposed methodology
    • Working list of up to 10 primary sources
    • Working list of up to 20 secondary and tertiary sources
    • Outline of the argument

  • In the third and fourth semesters of the program, the student will enroll in Thesis Writing.  In order to graduate by the end of the fourth semester, the thesis must be approved by the director and submitted to the President of the Pontifical Faculty two months before the end of the semester.  The President will then assign another faculty member to read and approve the thesis.  Once approved, the student will request from the President a date for the Presentation and Defense of the Thesis.
     
  • Presentation and Defense of S.T.L. Thesis
     
    • The candidate for the S.T.L. degree will give a ten minute presentation of the thesis before a board constituted by the director of the thesis and at least one other professor who is appointed by the President of the Pontifical Faculty. After the candidate’s presentation, each member of the board will ask questions and discuss the presentation with the candidate for ten minutes apiece. 

    • The members of the board will then submit two numerical grades, one for the thesis and one for the presentation and defense.  In order for the candidate to pass, the average of the thesis grade and the average of the presentation grade both must be at least a 86%. 

    • After the presentation and defense, the student will make any corrections required by the board and submit the corrected thesis to the director.  The director will then confirm that the corrections have been made and notify the President of the Pontifical Faculty, who will in turn notify the Registrar.

      The director will then instruct the student to submit a copy of the final thesis to the Library Director for approval of formatting as outlined in the USML Writer’s Manual.   Once final approval is given, the Library Director will forward an electronic copy of the thesis to the Registrar, who will arrange for its printing and binding.  Costs for the printing and biding will be billed to the student.

  •  Time Limits
     
    • The S.T.L. is completed within four semesters.  A student may request to extend the work by submitting an Extension Request Form and  registering for “Ongoing Thesis Writing” each semester until the project is complete.  Extensions may be granted for a maximum of three years.  After this time, a diploma will not be granted.  Students still wishing to be awarded the degree must reapply.

    • In order to participate in the University Convocation at the end of the academic year, a student must have completed their Comprehensive Exams, successfully presented and defended the thesis, and have received final approval of style and formatting of the thesis by the Library Director (as stated above) thirty days before the Convocation. 

S.T.L. Course Descriptions

Required Courses

DT811              History of Christian Thought I (3 cr)

During this semester, we will make a close examination of the emergence and development of the Catholic Tradition in both the East and West from the New Testament to 381 AD. We will emphasize a critical reading of texts from significant authors that highlight the major themes of Christology, Trinitarian Theology and Theological Anthropology. The texts will be set in the context of the general history of the Christian Church during these centuries. We will place particular emphasis on the disputes over the doctrine of God in the course of fourth century Christianity.

                                                            Lupton/ Fall
 

DT812              History of Christian Thought II (3 cr)

In this course, we will continue our close examination of the development of the Catholic Tradition in both the East and West from 431 to 800 AD.  We will again emphasize a critical reading of texts from significant authors that highlight the major themes of Christology, Trinitarian Theology, and Theological Anthropology.  The texts will be set in the context of the general history of the Christian Church during these centuries.  We will begin with a survey of the doctrine of Christ as it emerged from the great Patristic conciliar tradition (Ephesus, 431 to Nicaea II, 787), and then move to a survey of the theological contribution of the foremost Latin Father, St. Augustine of Hippo (353-430).  The texts of St. Augustine will be set in the context of Peter Brown’s classic biography, Augustine of Hippo.

                                                            Lupton/ Spring
 

DT813              History of Christian Thought III (3cr)

This course surveys the development of Catholic doctrine in from the 8th century to the 15th century, focusing on how Augustinian, Dionysian and Thomist theological paradigms functioned as the basis for the variety of theological schools and methods which formed the theological landscape of medieval Christendom.Theological developments in the doctrine of God, Christology, and Christian anthropology will be discussed, with special emphasis on progress in understanding in the doctrines of the human person and the dynamics of salvation.

                                                            Hebden/ Spring
 

DT814              History of Christian Thought IV (3 cr)

This course explores some of the major themes in the history of Christian theology from 1500 until 1900.  It engages Martin Luther and John Calvin and discusses the Catholic response, especially as expressed in the Council of Trent.  It presents the Age of Enlightenment as also the logical outgrowth of these religious contestations. Taking Immanuel Kant and G.W.F. Hegel as the points d’appui, it discusses next the contributions of Friedrich Schleiermacher, Johann Adam Mohler, Soren Kierkegaard, Vatican I, John Henry Newman and Matthias Scheeben.

                                                            de Gaál/ Fall


DT815              History of Christian Thought V (3 cr)

This course will cover the issues and theologians from the period of the Modernist Crisis in 1860 through the twentieth century and the recent debates over the theology of Hans Urs von Balthasar.integrating theme will be theology’s engagement with the intellectual currents of the Modern world.course will examine the emergence ofso-called “liberal theology” and trace the various reactions across the years.Personalities will include Fredrick Schliermacker, Karl Barth, Paul Tillich, Henri de Lubac, Yves Congar, Karl Rahner, Bernard Lonergan, Han Urs von Balthasar and others.themes will include theological methodology, post-liberal theology, feminist theology, liberation theology, Eastern Orthodox theology and ecumenical theology.course will conclude with a consideration of the new evangelization.    

Levering/ Spring

DT819              Thesis Proposal (3 cr)

The goal of this course is the crafting of a S.T.L. Thesis Proposal.  Topics covered will include theological method, status quaestionis, second level bibliographical sources, and theological argument. In addition, students will also meet with their director regularly.                            

Faculty/ Spring
 

DT820-21          Thesis Writing  (2 cr)

                                                       Faculty/ Fall & Spring

 
DT822-828        Ongoing Thesis Writing (1 cr)

The Licentiate paper is completed in the final term of study. By exception students may extend the work for up to three years during which time they must register for this course each semester until the project is complete. 

Faculty/ Fall & Spring     

 

Elective Courses 

DT831              Mystics of the Eastern Christian Tradition (3 cr)

Whether described as following God, the unmediated experience of the presence of God, union with God, or becoming God (by grace and participation), the mystical element permeates the theology and spirituality of the Christian East. The mystical fathers of the Christian East offer particular insight into the integration of mystical experience, spiritual discipline, and theological understanding.  This course will examine the writings of key directors of the mystical life from the Orthodox East as it explores the interdependence of theology and mystical experience, and will read texts from across the centuries, from the second century to the modern era, and from across the Greek, Russian, and Syrian Orthodox traditions.

                                                     Theodoropoulos/ Spring
 

DT852              Pauline Christology (3 cr)

St. Paul was the Church’s first theologian, and the history of Christian theology begins with him and can never wander far from his inspiration. Paul, however, wrote letters in response to pastoral problems. He did not leave any systematic essays. Therefore, there have been many attempts to summarize his theology using many different organizing principles. Our attempt will proceed by taking “Living in Christ” as Paul’s central concept. We will try to uncover the elements of Paul’s Christology by following the thread of this theme through the Pauline corpus of thirteen letters.

                                                            Lodge/ Fall 

DT821               St. Thomas on Temperance (3cr)

This course explores the relationship of moral temperance and intellectual temperance.  In his treatise on temperance, St. Thomas Aquinas draws upon rich veins of biblical, Greco-Roman, and patristic thought.  He portrays the place of temperance within the graced life of following Christ.  It is well known that temperance pertains to moral virtue (as opposed to gluttony, sexual sins and so forth), but it is less known that under the rubric of temperance Aquinas also treats intellectual vices such as pride and mere cleverness.  The wholeness of human life, intellectual and moral, is what is at stake here.  We will also explore what it means to speak of "human nature" and how Aquinas construes human nature, in light of philosophy and the Gospel.  Full human flourishing in Christ is the subject of this course.  Attention will be paid to pastoral applications of Aquinas's teaching.

                                                                         Levering/ Fall

 DT822                  Topics in Theology and Science (3cr)

This STL seminar course will explore questions posed by the contemporary interface between theological and scientific investigation.  The basic methodology will be to place the student’s already-acquired theological acumen in dialogue with the implications arising from the latest scientific research.  Participants will gain a well-informed layman’s working knowledge of both classical and recent findings in the physical and biological sciences.  Through intensive readings and discussions of such authors as Wittgenstein, Popper, Kuhn, Chandrasekhar, Torrance, Plantinga, Polkinghorne, Greene, Dawkins, and McGrath, we will address the contributions that science makes to our understanding of such areas as Trinitarian theology, Christian anthropology, and eschatology.  Special focus will be placed on the epistemological consonance and dissonance between theology and science.  Students will be expected to complete a substantial research paper on a topic of their choice and present their findings to the seminar participants at the end of the course.

                                                                        Kartje/ Fall

 

Reading List for S.T.L. Exam

 Printer Ready Version

Students are examined in the areas of concentration of the S.T.L. program: the Doctrine of God, Christology, and one of the following areas: Theological Anthropology, Sacramental/ Liturgical Theology, or Spiritual Theology.  Students are responsible for theological methodology across all three areas.

 

Sacred Scripture      

Since Sacred Scripture is the soul of theology, all students are responsible   for the biblical foundations for each area of concentration.  Students will demonstrate knowledge of the biblical genres relevant to these foundations as well as the ability to employ the various Church sanctioned exegetical methodologies. 

 

Conciliar Tradition

All students are responsible for the Catholic dogmatic affirmations in each area of concentration, especially as defined in the following documents.

Please note that these Conciliar documents may be found in:

Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, ed. Norman P. Tanner
Enchiridion Symbolorum, ed. Heinrich Denzinger, 2012*

*Among the various English translations, this edition of the Denzinger is the most reliable.

 
Nicaea I: Profession of Faith and Canons

Constantinople I: Exposition of Faith and Canons

Ephesus

Formula of Union

Chalcedon: Definition of Faith and Canon 28

Second Synod of Orange: Canons (in J.P. Burns, Theological Anthropology)

Constantinople II: Sentence against the “Three Chapters

Constantinople III: Exposition of Faith

Nicaea II: Definition and Anathemas Concerning Holy Images

Lateran IV: Constitutions:

1. On the Catholic Faith
2. On the error of the Abbot Joachim

Council of Florence: Session 6: Concerning Filioque

Council of Trent:

Session 5: Decree on Original Sin
Session 6: Decree on Justification

Vatican I: Session 3:

Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith and Canons

Vatican II:     

Sacrosanctum Concilium 
Lumen Gentium
Dei Verbum
Gaudium et Spes   

 

Magisterial Documents           

Scripture 

Divino Afflante Spiritu   [Pius XII, September 30, 1943]

The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church [Pontifical Biblical Commission, April 23, 1993]

Doctrine of God

 Declaration for Safeguarding the Belief in the Mysteries of the Incarnation and the Most Holy Trinity against some recent errors. [Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, February 21, 1972]

Christology & Soteriology 

Common Declaration of Pope Paul VI and Catholicos Vasken I, Supreme Catholicos, Patriarch of all Armenians [May 12, 1970]

Common Declaration of Pope Paul VI and Mar Ignatius Yacob III [October 27, 1971]

Common Declaration of Pope Paul VI and Pope of Alexandria, Shenouda III [May 10, 1973]

Letter to Father Edward Schillebeeckx Regarding his Christological Positions [June 13, 1984]

Common Declaration of Pope John Paul II and His Holiness Mar Ignatius Zakka I Iwas [June 23, 1984]

Common Christological Declaration Between the Catholic Church      and       the Assyrian Church of the East [November, 11, 1984]

Common Declaration of Pope John Paul II and Catholicos Karekin I [December 13, 1996]

Common Declaration of Pope John Paul II and Catholicos Aram I Keshishian [January 25, 1997]

Dominus Jesus: On the Unicity and Salvific Universality of Jesus Christ and the Church [June 16, 2000] 

Theological Anthropology 

Dignitatis Humanae  [Second Vatican Council, 1965]

Humanae Vitae  [Paul VI, July 25, 1968]

Donum Vitae [Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, February 22, 1987]

Familiaris Consortio  [John Paul II, November 22, 1981]

Letter to the Bishops on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons [Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, October 1, 1986]

Evangelium Vitae  [John Paul II, March 25, 1995]

Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification by the Lutheran World Federation and the Catholic Church,  [October 10, 1999] 

Theological Methodology 

Instruction on the Ecclesial Vocation of the Theologian [Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, 1990]

Theology Today: Perspectives, Principles, and Criteria [International Theological Commission, 2011]

 

Selected Theologians 

For this exam, each student will select six theologians, one from each of the following periods:

Patristic (33 - 800)
Monastic and Scholastic (800 - 1500)
Reformation (1500 -1700)
Early Modern (1700-1900)
Twentieth Century to Vatican II (1900 - 1965)
Contemporary Period (1965 – present) 

At least three of the theologians selected must be from the Catholic tradition. 

Of the six theologians selected, the candidate is responsible for  two theologians in the area of Doctrine of God, and two in the area of Christology, and  two theologians from one of the following areas:  Theological Anthropology, Sacrament / Liturgical Theology, or Spiritual Theology.

Students should demonstrate competency not only in the selected texts listed below, but also in the theological method, intention, and overall context and structure of the author’s thought.  Students may consult the Secondary Texts listed below.


Patristic (33 - 800
)

Many patristic authors are represented in the following anthologies in the series Sources of Early Christian Thought: 

J.P. Burns, Theological Anthropology
R.A. Norris, The Christological Controversy
G. Rusch, The Trinitarian Controversy   

Doctrine of God                           

Arius, Letters to Eusebius of Nicomedia,to Alexander of Alexandria,and to the Emperor Constantine

Athanasius, Orations against the Arians, Book 1

Augustine, On the Trinity, Books 1 and 9-15

Basil the Great, On the Holy Spirit

Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite, The Divine Names; The Mystical Theology

Gregory of Nyssa, On Why There Are Not Three Gods

Gregory Nazianzus, Third Theological Oration

Justin Martyr, First Apology

Maximus the Confessor, Chapters on Knowledge

 

Christology                  

Athanasius, Orations against the Arians, Book 3; On the Incarnation

Ignatius of Antioch, The Epistles

Irenaeus, Against Heresies, Book III, Chapters 18-19, Book V, Chapter 1

Origen, On First Principles, Book II

 

Anthropology 

Augustine, On the Grace of Christ

Gregory of Nyssa, Sermon on the Sixth Beatitude

Irenaeus, Against the Heresies

Leo of Rome, Letter to Flavian of Constantinople

Origen, Homily on Genesis 1

 

Spiritual Theology

Athanasius, The Life of Antony

Augustine, The Confessions

Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite, The Mystical Theology; The Ecclesial Hierarchy

John Cassian, Conferences

Sacramental/ Liturgical

Ambrose, On the Sacraments; On the Mysteries

Augustine, Sermons 227, 229, 272

Ignatius of Antioch, Letters to the Churches

John Chrysostom, Paschal Homilies; Baptismal Instructions

Justin Martyr, First Apologia

 

Monastic and Scholastic (800 - 1500)

Doctrine of God                 

Anselm, Proslogion; Monologion

Bonaventure, Disputed Questions on the Mystery of the Trinity

Gregory Palamas, The Triads

John Duns Scotus,A Treatise on God as First Principal

Richard of St Victor, On the Trinity

Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae I, questions 2-13; 27-43


Christology
 

Anselm, Cur Deus Homo

Bonaventure, Disputed Questions on the Knowledge of Christ

John Duns Scotus. Four Questions on Mary

Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae III, questions 1-26, 46-56

 

Anthropology 

Bernard of Clairvaux, On Grace and Free Will

Bonaventure, The Journey of the Soul into God

Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae I-II, questions 55-70 (virtues and gifts); 75-83 (sin); 109-114 (grace)

 

Spiritual Theology 

Bernard of Clairvaux, On Loving God; Steps of Humility and Pride; Selected Homilies on the Song of Songs (see Classics of Western Spirituality)

Bonaventure, The Journey of the Soul into God; The Life of Francis

Catherine of Siena, The Dialogues

Gregory Palamas, The Triads

 

Sacramental/ Liturgical 

Hugh of St. Victor, De sacramentis christianae fidei

Lanfranc of Canterbury, On the Body and Blood of the Lord

Lombard, Sentences Book IV

Thomas Aquinas,  Summa Theologiae  III q. 60 - 90

 

Reformation (1500 -1700) 

Doctrine of God 

John Calvin, Institutes,  Book III, chapter 21 (Theme: Double Predestination)

Martin Luther, The Bondage of the Will (Theme: Deus Absconditus)

 

Christology 

John Calvin, Institutes, Book II, chapters 12-17

Martin Luther, Commentary on Galatians (1535)

 

Anthropology 

John Calvin, Institutes Book II, chapters 1-2, 6; Book III, chapters 1-2, 11, 15, 19, 21 

Martin Luther, The Freedom of a ChristianThe Bondage of the Will  (1525);  Commentary on Galatians  (1535)

Luis de Molina, On Divine Foreknowledge

 

Spiritual Theology 

Robert Bellarmine, The Mind’s Ascent to God by the Ladder of Created Things

Pierre de Bérulle, Discourse on the State and Grandeurs of Jesus

Francis de Sales, Treatise on the Love of God; Introduction to the Devout Life

John of the Cross, The Ascent of Mt. Carmel; The Dark Night

Teresa of Avila, The Interior Castle

 

Sacramental/ Liturgical

Council of Trent, Sessions 13, 22, 23

 

Early Modern (1700-1900) 

Doctrine of God 

John Henry Newman, An Essay on the Development of  Christian Doctrine

Matthias Scheeben, The Mysteries of Christianity

Friedrich Schleiermacher, The Christian Faith, pars. 50-56; 170-172

 

Christology 

Søren Kierkegaard, Philosophical Fragments

Friedrich Schleiermacher, The Christian Faith, pars. 92-101

 

Anthropology 

Maurice Blondel, L’Action

Søren Kierkegaard, Fear and Trembling; The Sickness unto Death

J.A. Möhler, Symbolism

John Henry Newman, An Essay on the Development of  Christian Doctrine; An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent, chapters 9-10

Matthias Scheeben, The Mysteries of Christianity

Friedrich Schleiermacher, On Religion, Speeches 2 and 5; The Christian Faithpars. 36-41, 62-72 and 86-88

 

Spiritual Theology 

Alphonsus de Ligouri, Divine Love and the Means of Acquiring It; Conformity to the Will of God; The Practice of the Love of Jesus Christ

Thérèse of Lisieux, Story of a Soul

 

Sacramental/ Liturgical 

Alphonsus de Ligouri, The Holy Eucharist

 

Twentieth Century to Vatican II (1900 - 1965) 

Doctrine of God 

Karl Barth, Church Dogmatics, Vol. 1/1

Yves Congar, I Believe in the Holy Spirit

Jean Daniélou, God and the Ways of Knowing

Henri de Lubac, The Discovery of God

Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, Reality

Vladimir Lossky, The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church

Karl Rahner, Theological Investigations, Vol. 4, articles 3 & 9

Dumitri St─âniloae, The Experience of God

Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology, Vol. 1

Hans Urs von Balthasar, The Theology of Karl Barth

 

Christology 

Karl Barth, Church Dogmatics, Vol. 4/1

Sergius Bulgakov, The Bride of the Lamb

Vladimir Lossky, The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church

Jacques Maritain, On the Grace and Humanity of Jesus

Karl Rahner, Foundations of Christian Faith, Chapters 5-6

Edward Schillebeeckx, Christ the Sacrament of the Encounter with God

Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology, Vol. 2

Hans Urs von Balthasar, Mysterium Paschale

 

Anthropology 

Karl Barth, Epistle to the RomansThe Humanity of God

Maurice Blondel, History and Dogma

Henri de Lubac, The Mystery of the Supernatural; A Brief Catechesis on Nature and Grace; Augustinianism and Modern Theology

Karl Rahner, Hearer of the WordFoundations of Christian Faith, chapters 1-4;  Theological Investigations, Vol. 6, articles 11-16

Edith Stein, Essays on Woman; On the Problem of Empathy

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, The Divine Milieu

Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology, Vol. 3

Hans Urs von Balthasar, Glory of the Lord, Vol. I

 

Spiritual Theology 

Jean Daniélou, Prayer: The Mission of the Church

Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, Three Stages of the Interior Life

Thomas Merton, New Seeds of Contemplation

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Hymn of the Universe

 

Sacramental/ Liturgical

Odo Casel, The Mystery of Christian Worship

Romano Guardini, The Spirit of the Liturgy

Edward Schillebeeckx, Christ the Sacrament of the Encounter with God

Anscar Vonier, The Key to the Doctrine of the Eucharist

 

Contemporary Theologians (1965 – present) 

Doctrine of God 

Elizabeth Johnson, She Who Is

Walter Kasper, The God of Jesus Christ

Jürgen Moltmann, The Trinity and the Kingdom

Joseph Ratzinger, Introduction to Christianity

Hans Urs von Balthasar, Theo-Drama, Vol. III

Thomas Weinandy, Does God Suffer?

 

Christology 

Walter Kasper, Jesus the Christ

Jürgen Moltmann, The Crucified God

Joseph Ratzinger, Jesus of Nazareth,  3 vols.

Jon Sobrino, Jesus the Liberator: A Historical-Theological View; Christ the Liberator: A View from the Victims

Hans Urs von Balthasar, Theodrama, Vol. 3, parts 1 & 2; vol. 4

John Zizioulas, Being as Communion

 

Anthropology 

Avery Dulles, The Assurance of Things Hoped For

John Paul II,  Man and Woman He Created Them: Theology of the Body

Hans Urs von Balthasar, Theodrama, Vol. 2; vol. 3, part IIIA; The Christian State of Life

John Zizioulas, Being as Communion

 

Spiritual Theology 

John Paul II, Vita Consecrata; Pastores dabo vobis; Christifideles laici

Henri Nouwen, The Return of the Prodigal Son; Making All Things New

 

Sacramental/ Liturgical 

Chauvet, Symbol and Sacrament: A Sacramental Reinterpretation of Christian Existence

Jean Corbon, The Wellspring of Worship

Joseph Ratzinger, Spirit of the Liturgy; Feast of Faith

  

Suggested Secondary Sources/Textbooks: 

In order to demonstrate competency and to contextualize the primary sources, students may consult the following secondary sources and texts.

 

Giles Emery, The Trinitarian Theology of St Thomas Aquinas

A. Grillmeier, Christ in Christian Tradition, 2 vols.

Zachary Hayes, Christ the Center

William Hill, The Three-Personed God

J.N.D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines

Bernard McGinn, The Presence of God: A History of Western Christian Mysticism. 4 vols.

John Meyendorff, Christ in Eastern Christian Thought

Jaroslav Pelikan, The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, 5 vols.

Karl Rahner, ed., Sacramentum Mundi

Henri Rondet, The Grace of Christ 

Van Niewenhove & Wawrykow,  The Theology of Thomas Aquinas

Oxford University Press, Great Medieval Thinkers Seriesmultiple vols.

 

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